The History of Egypt for Kids - Hyksos rulers of Ancient Egypt

The Civilization, Culture & History of Ancient Egypt and facts about the Hyksos rulers of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptians

Ancient Egyptians - Hyksos foreign rulers
A comprehensive guide and fact sheet about the Hyksos. Discover fascinating facts and information about ancient Egypt and the Hyksos foreign rulers.
The origin of the foreign rulers
The conquest of the Nile Delta by the "Shepherd Kings"
The introduction of the horse and chariot to ancient Egypt
The destruction by the foreign rulers
Egyptians of the Nile Valley retained their independence
The reign of the dynasty of foreign rulers
Egyptians use of the chariot and the expulsion of the foreign rulers

Connection between the expulsion of the Hyksos of ancient Egypt and the story of Moses in the Book of Exodus

Ancient Egyptians - Hyksos
Click a link for additional information and interesting facts about subjects relating to Hyksos or other aspects of daily life, the people and places of ancient Egypt.

Definition: The Hyksos were the foreign rulers who conquered and ruled the land of ancient Egypt in the Second Intermediate period during the
15th/16/17th Dynasties. There was only one dynasty of "Shepherd Kings".  which was founded by Salatis who was followed in succession by Beon, Apachnas, Apophis, Jannas and Asses. According to Manetho, an ancient Egyptian historian, these six "Shepherd Kings" reigned for 198 years and 10 months.

The Hyksos
The Hyksos introduced two great innovations to ancient Egypt. The horse and chariot and farming equipment used for irrigation purposes called the Shadoof (aka shaduf). They also introduced ships that incorporated a keel, which made them far more stabile and seaworthy than the feluccas, the simple boats used by the Egyptians. Consequently, trade with the islands of the Mediterranean increased significantly and boosted the economy of Egypt.

The Horse and Chariot
The use of the horse and chariot must have terrified the ancient Egyptians when they were first confronted by such a force in battle. The Egyptians adopted the horse and chariot and revolutionized their combat methods which would eventually help them build a great Empire.

The Shaduf
The shaduf (aka shadoof) was used to easily raise water above the level of the Nile which was then diverted to a canal. The Shadoof was a simple wooden tool consisting of a pole with a bucket on one end and a weight on the other but its introduction revolutionized the farming techniques of the ancient Egyptians. The shadoof enabled the ancient Egyptians to get two crops a year.

Hyksos rulers - Horse and chariot

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Fact 1 on Hyksos:

The origin of the term "Hyksos" derives from the ancient Egyptian phrase meaning "rulers of foreign lands". They were also referred to as the "Shepherd Kings".

Fact 2 on Hyksos:

Movements had begun among nomadic populations of Asia, collectively referred to as the Hyksos, looking for new lands to settle. The Hittites came from Anatolia (modern Turkey), and were growing in power and forcing people to flee their homelands and migrate southwards.

Fact 3 on Hyksos:

The movement of the population in turn displaced people living in Upper Syria and in Canaan (Israel or Palestine).

Fact 4 on Hyksos:

The tribes of displaced people moved towards the land of Egypt...

Fact 5 on Hyksos:

These tribes consisted of a large variety of different races, multi-ethnic, who were described as "a collection of all the nomadic hordes of Syria and Arabia", and compared to the hordes of Attila the Hun.

Fact 6 on Hyksos:

Others believe that they were wandering groups of Semites (people from southwestern Asia consisting of Babylonians, Assyrians, Arameans, Canaanites, and Phoenicians) who had long come to Egypt for trade and peaceful purposes.

Fact 7 on Hyksos:

The truth of the motives of the newcomers probably lies between the two different descriptions- barbarians or traders.

Fact 8 on Hyksos:

Much of our information about the migrants comes from Manetho an Egyptian historian and priest who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the 3rd century BC.

Fact 9 on Hyksos:

According to Manetho an overwhelming flood of men, numbering a quarter of a million, poured into the land of Egypt

Fact 10 on Hyksos:

The invasion came from the east to the Nile Delta region of Egypt and the power of the foreigners reached down to the area of the Faiyum.

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Discover fast, interesting fun facts about the Hyksos for kids with some amazing, cool and quick information about ancient Egypt and Egyptians. Ideal for children, homework, schools, teachers and kids of all ages! Find fascinating fun facts about the Hyksos for kids and the history, culture and civilisation of the ancient Egyptians and ancient Egypt. Interesting, fun facts about the Hyksos for research, schools, students and kids of all ages.


The Ancient Egyptians


Ancient Egyptian Dynasties

Learn about these conquerors and foreign rulers the fast and easy way via the Hyksos Fact sheet.

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Fact 11 on Hyksos:

They did not reach the Nile Valley region in the south of Egypt (see map below) and ancient Egyptian cities such as Thebes, Abydos and Thinis were not disturbed.

Fact 12 on Hyksos:

The Nile Delta region was subjected to the harsh treatment of the foreign rulers, the "Shepherd Kings".

Fact 13 on Hyksos:

The historical period known as the Middle Kingdom covered the 11th and the 12th dynasty of Egyptian rulers. Queen Sobeknefru of the 12th dynasty, the first known female ruler of Egypt, died leaving no heir. The 2nd Intermediate period followed during which time the conquest of the 'foreign rulers' began.

Fact 14 on Hyksos:

The 2nd intermediate period saw the rise of hostilities of the Hyksos 'foreign rulers', which had initially started during the 11th dynasty. They gained control of the Nile Delta region with limited resistance from the Egyptians. One of the reasons for their success was the different type of warfare and tactics they applied.  

Fact 15 on Hyksos:

The 'foreign rulers' or "Shepherd Kings" had horses and chariots - at this point in history the Egyptians did not. The Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot to Egypt.

Fact 16 on Hyksos:

After the submission of the Egyptian population of the Nile Delta, the 'foreign rulers', according to Manetho, conducted themselves in a most barbarous fashion towards the whole of the inhabitants. Killing many Egyptians and reducing the wives and the children to slavery.

Fact 17 on Hyksos:

They savagely set the Egyptian cities on fire and demolished the temples of the gods.

Fact 18 on Hyksos:

They made a man called Salatis their king who he received tributes both cities in both Upper and Lower Egypt.

Fact 19 on Hyksos:

Salatis solidified his position by strategically placing garrisons in all the most suitable locations, fortifying the borders especially in the east as he believed that the Assyrians, who were building a powerful empire, might also look to invade a conquer Egypt.

Fact 20 on Hyksos:

Salatis then made Avaris his capital, with extensive building and fortifications.

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Map of ancient Egypt showing Avais and Xois



Facts and Information about "Shepherd Kings"

the "Shepherd Kings", foreign rulers

The people, places, culture and civilization of ancient Egypt

Facts and information about Ancient Egypt & the Egyptians

Hyksos for kids and schools

"Shepherd Kings"  for kids, schools, homework and research

The "Shepherd Kings", foreign rulers


Learn about these conquerors and foreign rulers the fast and easy way via the Hyksos Fact sheet.

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Fact 21 on Hyksos:

Despite the increased power and stronghold that Salitas had created the regions in the far south still escaped the newcomers. Elephantine, Thebes, Abydos acknowledged the power of the conquerors of the Nile Delta and by the payment of an annual tribute, retained their independence from the 'foreign rulers'.

Fact 22 on Hyksos:

The buildings and the civilization of the ancient Egyptians remained in tact in the Nile Valley, despite the destructive havoc of the Nile Delta by the "Shepherd Kings".

Fact 23 on Hyksos:

The period that the "Shepherd Kings" remained in power was during the 2nd Intermediate Period that ranged 1782-1550 BC (13th - 17th Egyptian Dynasties).

Fact 24 on Hyksos:

There was only one dynasty of "Shepherd Kings".  This is a dynasty of six kings only. Salatis was followed in succession by Beon, Apachnas, Apophis, Jannas and Asses. According to Manetho these six "Shepherd Kings" reigned 198 years and 10 months

Fact 25 on Hyksos:

The "Shepherd Kings" were gradually influenced by their surroundings and assimilated themselves to their Egyptian subjects.

Fact 26 on Hyksos:

They adopted the Egyptian style of dress, the language, the art, the writing and the  architecture.

Fact 27 on Hyksos:

Massive building projects were undertaken by the later "Shepherd Kings," in Tanis including temples and sculptures in the style of the Egyptians. The foreign kings erected their statues at Tanis, which were sculptured by Egyptian artists according to the customary rules of Egyptian art. The only differences being in their crowns and their beards.

Fact 28 on Hyksos:

The rule of the "Shepherd Kings" weakened and the Egyptians adopted the use of the horse and the chariot, which the foreign rulers had introduced.

Fact 29 on Hyksos:

The  Egyptians adapted to this new style of warfare and ensured that their people were trained  in the use of weapons. The native Egyptians slowly acquired a reputation as warriors, what they needed was a good military leader. The period of the 17th dynasty saw the start of the power and military struggles with the "Shepherd Kings".

Fact 30 on Hyksos:

The 18th dynasty heralded the period in ancient history known as the New Kingdom and was the time when Egypt reached the height of its power. It new military prowess and use of the horse and chariot enabled them to build a great Egyptian Empire

Fact 31 on Hyksos:

Pharaoh Ahmose 1 (r.15491524 BC) completed the expulsion of the 'foreign rulers' and founded the Eighteenth dynasty and Egypt was reclaimed by the native Egyptians.

Fact 32 on Hyksos:

There are many theories regarding the association between the expulsion of the Hyksos people and the Exodus of the Israelites from ancient Egypt.

Fact 33 on Hyksos:

The Book of Exodus tells the story of how Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Mount Sinai.

Fact 34 on Hyksos:

According to Exodus 12:37-38, the Israelites numbered "about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children," plus many non-Israelites and livestock.

Ancient Egypt - Hyksos Fact Sheet

Departure of the Israelites

Picture of the departure of the Israelites

Learning about the ancient Egyptians inspires everyone to visit historical sites and undertake Egypt Travel and Tours to experience the wonders of this magical land at first hand. Many people choose to experience a tour of Egypt on a Nile Cruise stopping at the famous destinations and sites of Egypt such as the Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx. The information and facts about the Hyksos will provide you with a great insight into Egypt and the legacy of the ancient Egyptians.



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