31st Dynasty

The History of Egypt for Kids - 31st Dynasty, the Second Rule of the Persians

The Civilization, Culture & History of Ancient Egypt and facts about the line of pharaohs in the 31st Dynasty

Ancient Egyptians

Ancient Egyptians - 31st Dynasty
A comprehensive guide and fact sheet about the 31st dynasty of the royal house of Egypt. Discover fascinating facts and information about ancient Egypt and the 31st Dynasty of Ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
The definition of the 31st Dynasty
Second Persian dynasty pharaohs timeline and chronology
31st dynasty, the Second Rule of the Persians
History of the line of kings of the Late Period
Facts and information about the 31st dynasty time period
Line of succession
Names, dates and events
An overview of the history of the 31st Dynasty of ancient Egypt

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Definition of the 31st Dynasty
Definition: The 31st Dynasty of ancient Egypt consisted of a succession of kings from the same family who succeeded each other on the royal throne of Egypt by right of inheritance. The Kings of Egypt and pharaohs of the 31st Dynasty ruled during the time period known in ancient Egyptian history as the
Late Period or the Second Persian Period. The First Persian Period was during the 27th Dynasty.

Thirty-first Dynasty Dates: 343332 B.C.E.

Ancient Egyptian Dynasties


History of the 31st Dynasty and its Pharaohs
Overview with interesting facts and information about the civilization and history of the 31st Dynasty Pharaohs and Kings of the Late Late Period in ancient Egyptian history.

Ancient Egyptian History - 31st Dynasty Fact Sheet

Fact 1 on 31st Dynasty:

Aware of the constant threat from Persia the final pharaoh of the previous line of kings, Nectanebo II, hired Greek mercenaries and extended the numbers in the Egyptian army to fight the Persians. He was defeated and King Artaxerxes III of Persia founded the 31st dynasty of Persian rulers, called the Second Persian Period.

Fact 2 on 31st Dynasty:

The Persian kings of the 27th Dynasty were hated by the Egyptians. They were viewed as cruel and hard task masters who demanded high levels of tax from their provinces.

Fact 3 on 31st Dynasty:

The kings of this line were also kings of Persia and delegated the rule of Egypt to a satrap, the name given to a provincial governor in the ancient Persian empire.

Fact 4 on 31st Dynasty:

The Egyptian's view of the Persians was still correct and before long Egypt's treasures were being looted to fill the royal coffers in Persia

Fact 5 on 31st Dynasty:

Prior to his succession to the Persian throne Artaxerxes had gained political and military experience as a satrap and commander of the Persian army. His father had had more than 115 sons by many wives, but most of them were illegitimate. He had to fight to achieve his ambition to become king.

Fact 6 on 31st Dynasty:

His route to the throne had been a bloody one. One of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide and his last legitimate brother was murdered. Determined not to be challenged Artaxerxes III murdered all the remaining survivors of the royal family in order to secure his place as king.

Fact 7 on 31st Dynasty:

The nobles of Egypt lived in fear and there were no rebellions against Artaxerxes III. He ruled Egypt from Persia, assisted by a general named Mentor and a court official called Bagoas.

Fact 8 on 31st Dynasty:

Satraps in Egypt: The name of the first recorded Satrap in Egypt during this time was Pherdates. (He was followed Sabaces and the last known satrap of Egypt was Mazaces.)

Fact 9 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas was a Eunuch, meaning he had been castrated. Eunuchs were common figures in the courts of many empires in the ancient world. Eunuchs were not from the nobility and therefore did not generally have loyalties to the aristocracy or military, neither did Eunuchs ambitious have vested interests in sons that they might want to promote.

Fact 10 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas, as a Eunuch, was therefore seen as more trustworthy than a noble. Bagoas helped Artaxerxes in his rise to power and was involved in the murders of the royal family.

Fact 11 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas became the vizier (Prime Minister) to King Artaxerxes III. Bagoas had great power and wealth gained from administering the satrapies.

Fact 12 on 31st Dynasty:

During his reign the power of the Greeks and the territory of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, was growing and Artaxerxes made alliances with the enemies of Greece. 

Fact 13 on 31st Dynasty:

The relationship between King Artaxerxes III and Bagoas deteriorated to such an extent that Bagoas planned a conspiracy against the king

Fact 14 on 31st Dynasty:

Artaxerxes III eventually met his just desserts. In 338 BC he and all of his heirs but one were poisoned by his vizier, Bagoas.

Fact 15 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas spared the youngest son Arses, so he could become the power behind the throne, ruling the Persian Empire.


Ancient Egyptian History - 31st Dynasty Fact Sheet

Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and Darius III

Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and Darius III


The Ancient Egyptians


History of the 31st Dynasty Pharaohs
Overview with interesting facts and information about the Pharaohs and Kings of the Late Late Period in ancient Egyptian history.

Darius III of Persia

Darius III of Persia

Ancient Egyptian History - 31st Dynasty Fact Sheet

Fact 16 on 31st Dynasty:

Arses resented the power of Bagoas and, supported by some courtiers, planned his murder.

Fact 17 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas acted first and murdered the young king. Arses reigned only two years before meeting the same fate as his father - death by poison.

Fact 18 on 31st Dynasty:

The kingmaker Bagoas then made Artashata, the last surviving legitimate heir to the Persian throne, king of Persia. Artashata was a cousin of Artaxerxes III and adopted the royal name of Darius III to emphasize his royal lineage.

Fact 19 on 31st Dynasty:

Darius III had no experience in government and was faced with rebellious subjects and foreign threats from Greece. He was also faced with Bagoas, who once again treated the monarch as a puppet king.

Fact 20 on 31st Dynasty:

Darius III opposed Bagoas, who, once again faced with losing his high status, planned his murder.

Fact 21 on 31st Dynasty:

Bagoas planned to give the king poison, but Darius was warned about the plot and turning the tables on Bagoas he forced the treacherous Vizier to drink his own poison.  

Fact 22 on 31st Dynasty:

The forces of Darius III faced the Greek armies of Alexander the Great who were defeated in three separate battles, the Battle of the Granicus, the Battle of Issus and the Battle of Gaugamela.

Fact 23 on 31st Dynasty:

Darius III reluctantly joined his forces and was the first to leave the battlefield at Gaugamela, abandoning his troops.  He fled, tried to negotiate peace and was eventually killed by one of his own associates.

Fact 24 on 31st Dynasty:

Egypt was surrendered peacefully to Alexander the Great in 332 ending the reign of the Persian rulers.

Fact 25 on 31st Dynasty:

Alexander the Great arranged Egypt into a satrapy under his Macedonian general Ptolemy leading to the period in ancient Egyptian history known as the Ptolemaic period.

Ancient Egyptian History - 31st Dynasty Fact Sheet

Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and Darius III

Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and Darius III


31st Dynasty

Facts and Information about the Kings, civilization and history

History, events and 1st family of Kings

The people, dates, places, culture and civilization of ancient Egypt

Facts, dates and information about Ancient Egypt & the Egyptians

Egyptian history for kids and schools

Ancient Egyptian history for kids, schools, homework and research

Civilization, History and Kings


31st Dynasty Chronology - Succession and History of the Kings
The following 31st Dynasty table details the names of the Persian Kings who ruled the ancient Egyptians together with a map of ancient Egypt.


The Persian Kings



King Artaxerxes III

King Arses

King Darius III
The Persian Kings


Picture of pharaoh

The Ancient Cities of Egypt

31st Dynasty History
Discover fast, interesting fun facts about 31st Dynasty for kids with some amazing, cool and quick information about ancient Egypt and Egyptians. Ideal for children, homework, schools, teachers and kids of all ages! Find fascinating fun facts about the history and kings of this dynasty for kids and the history, culture and civilisation of the ancient Egyptians and ancient Egypt. Interesting, fun facts about 31st Dynasty for research, schools, students and kids of all ages.


Ancient Egyptian History


31st Dynasty - Ancient Egyptians - Pictures - Eygptians - Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egyptians - Kids - Children - History and Civilization - Research - Schools - Homework - Eygptians - Egyption - Egypt - History - Ancient - Pictures - Images - Kids - Children - Kids - Facts - Eygptians - Interesting - Information - Kids - Children - Kids - Research - Ancient Egypt - Egyptology - Old Egypt - Egyptology - Egypten - Egyption - Egipt - History and Civilization - Travel - Tours - Nile Cruise - Holiday - Vacation - History and Civilization - Eygpt - Written By Linda Alchin