Fact 1 on the Late Period:
The history of Egyptian civilization in the Late Period was dominated by the threats from the Persian Empire and interspersed by the rules of Kings based first at Sais and another dynasty based in Mendes.
Fact 2 on the Late Period:
The dynastic rulers of Sais were founded by King Necho and established their dynasty from 664–525 B.C.E. and were originally powerful Nomarchs of this area of ancient Egypt.
Fact 3 on the Late Period:
King Psamtik I was able to oust the remaining Assyrians and Nubians from Egypt with an army of Egyptians supported by Greek mercenaries.
Fact 4 on the Late Period:
Threats from the Babylonian Empire were also repulsed and Egypt entered a period of increased trade and prosperity.
Fact 5 on the Late Period:
The ambitious and blood thirsty Persians led by Cambyses succeeded in conquering Egypt and the First Persian Period would last for nearly 200 years.
Fact 6 on the Late Period:
The provinces of the Persian empire were ruled by a commander-in-chief and a Persian satrap, the name given to a provincial governor in the ancient Persian empire.
Fact 7 on the Late Period:
The Persians were harsh and violent rulers of Egypt who grew rich from the taxes demanded from the ancient Egyptians. This led to an Egyptian rebellion but it was quashed by King Xerxes who went on to fight the Greeks and the 300 Spartans at the famous Battle of Thermopylae.
Fact 8 on the Late Period:
A devastating, deadly plague spread across the ancient world. Starting in Nubia the plague spread through Egypt on to Athens and the Persian empire.
Fact 9 on the Late Period:
The grip of the Persians on ancient Egypt declined with effects of the plague and internal and political conflicts in Persia. The death of King Darius II prompted a revolt led by Amyrtaeus, another prince of Sais.
Fact 10 on the Late Period:
The reign of Amyrtaeus, the only king of the 28th dynasty only lasted for 5 years and ended when he was judged to be a violator of the laws of ancient Egypt. Amyrtaeus was dethroned and publicly executed at Memphis.
Fact 11 on the Late Period:
Nepherites claimed the throne of Egypt and founded the 29th dynasty of rulers based at the city of Mendes.
Fact 12 on the Late Period:
The Mendes rulers saw some peace in Egypt but it was ended by Nectanebo I who founded the 30th line of Egyptian kings.
Fact 13 on the Late Period:
There was temporary halt to military conflict and threats from the Persians during which Nectanebo I enjoyed a prosperous reign initiating various building projects restoring temples and building new temples.
Fact 14 on the Late Period:
The peace was short lived and the Persians successfully re-conquered Egypt in c351 BC led by Artaxerxes III of Persia who took control of Egypt and founded the 31st dynasty of Persian rulers, known as the Second Persian Period.
Fact 15 on the Late Period:
Towards the end of the Second Persian Period a eunuch called Bagoas became the vizier (Prime Minister) to King Artaxerxes III. The relationship between the eunuch Bagoas deteriorated to such an extent that Bagoas planned a conspiracy against the Persian king.
Fact 16 on the Late Period:
The conspiracy led by the powerful Bagoas succeeded in 338 BC and King Artaxerxes III and all of his heirs but one called Artashata were poisoned by his vizier, Bagoas.
Fact 17 on the Late Period:
Bagoas used Artashata as a 'puppet king' naming him King Darius III. Conflict rose between the eunuch and the king and Bagoas had every intention of poisoning the new king. But the plot failed and Bagoas was forced to take his own poison.
Fact 18 on the Late Period:
King Darius III proved to be a cowardly leader against the Greeks, led by Alexander the Great, and abandoned his troops at the battlefield at Gaugamela. He was eventually killed by one of his own men.
Fact 19 on the Late Period:
The Persians fought two more battles against the Greeks and surrendered to Alexander the Great in 332 ending the reign of the hated Persian rulers.