The Dynasties of the Middle Kingdom
Historians divide Ancient Egyptian history into 31 dynasties. A Dynasty consisted of a succession of kings from the same family who succeeded each other on the throne by right of inheritance. The kings of the Middle Kingdom consisted of the 11th and 12th dynasties that covered a time span of 331 years.
Middle Kingdom Pharaohs and Kings of the Eleventh Dynasty
The Middle Kingdom pharaohs of the 11th Dynasty ruled for 143 years (2134–1991 BC). The first pharaohs of this dynasty were Intef I and Intef II when Egypt was split between the power of the Nomarchs and the pharaohs that resulted in military conflicts. Mentuhotep II managed to gain more control in his reign and succeeded in the conquest of the Thinite region ruled by the Herakleopolitan princes which led to the reunification of the country. To further assert his authority Mentuhotep II created the positions of Governor of Upper Egypt and Governor of Lower Egypt who had power over the local Nomarchs. His son Mentuhotep III increased the royal coffers by instigating a military campaign in the land of Punt that resulted in valuable 'spoils of war' including precious gemstones and other rare items. Mentuhotep IV was mysteriously succeeded by his vizier Amenemhat, who founded the 12th dynasty.
*The names of the kings of the 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom were Intef I (2134 - 2117 BC), Intef II 2117 - 2069 BC), Intef III (2069 - 2060 BC), Mentuhotep I (2060 - 2010 (BC), Mentuhotep II (2010 - 1998 BC), Mentuhotep III (2010 BC – 1998 BC) and Mentuhotep IV (1998–1991 BC).
Middle Kingdom Pharaohs and Kings of the Twelfth Dynasty
The Middle Kingdom pharaohs of the 12th Dynasty ruled for 188 years (1991–1803 BC). The non-royal Amenemhet I, who had usurped the throne of Mentuhotep IV, was eventually murdered. His son Senusret I claimed the throne and became one of the most powerful kings of the 12th Dynasty supporting the Nomarchs that were loyal to him and instigating successful trading missions. During his reign he mounted aggressive military campaigns against the gold rich Nubia. Senusret II initiated work on an extensive irrigation system in the swamplands of the Faiyum region which significantly increased the farming capabilities of the region. Senusret III was the most powerful king of the 12th dynasty and decreased the power of the Nomarchs. The building of the Sesostris Canal was initiated during his reign to link the River Nile to the Red Sea. He continued campaigns against Nubia and built a series of fortresses on the border and extended Egypt's lands in Nubia. Sobeknefru was the daughter of Pharaoh Amenemhat III and the first known female ruler of Egypt. Sobeknefru died young, leaving no heir and the 13th dynasty of the 2nd Intermediate period began leading to the conquest and rule of the Hyksos foreign rulers.
*The names of the kings of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom were Amenemhet I (1991 - 1962 BC), Senusret I (1971 - 1926 BC), Amenemhet II (1929 - 1895 BC), Senusret II (1897 - 1878 BC), Senusret III (1878 - 1841 BC), Amenemhet III (1842 - 1797 BC), Amenemhet IV (1798 - 1786 BC) and Queen Sobeknefru (1785 - 1782 BC).
Learning about the ancient Egyptians and the Middle Kingdom inspires everyone to visit historical sites and undertake Egypt Travel and Tours to experience the wonders of this magical land at first hand. Many people choose to experience a tour of Egypt on a Nile Cruise stopping at the famous destinations and sites of Egypt such as the Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx. The information and facts about the Middle Kingdom will provide you with a great insight into Egypt and the legacy of the ancient Egyptians.